### The singleton universe!

Singleton pattern appears to be very easy to understand because in its simplest form it can be implemented in minutes with the help of well defined language idioms. But in fact, it is one of the most complex patterns I have ever read about! If you dig around a little bit, there is a whole slew of information/articles available on this nifty pattern talking about its limitations and their solutions. Here is a collection of some of the amazing articles.

The Singleton pattern - Gamma et al.
To kill a Singleton - John Vlissides
The Monostate pattern (The Power of One (More C++ Gems) - Steve Ball and John Crawford)
Implementing Singletons (Chapter 6, Modern C++ Design) - Andrei Alexandrescu
Double Checked Locking Pattern (DCLP) - Doug Schmidt
C++ and the perils of DCLP - Scott Meyers, Andrei Alexandrescu
DCLP is broken in Java - Bacon et al.
Object Lifetime Manager pattern - Levine, Gill, and Doug Schmidt

Anonymous said…
nice, thanks for that list of good articles
Anonymous said…
Yo may also find usefull information about Singleton at
http://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/singleton

### Multi-dimensional arrays in C++11

What new can be said about multi-dimensional arrays in C++? As it turns out, quite a bit! With the advent of C++11, we get new standard library class std::array. We also get new language features, such as template aliases and variadic templates. So I'll talk about interesting ways in which they come together. It all started with a simple question of how to define a multi-dimensional std::array. It is a great example of deceptively simple things. Are the following the two arrays identical except that one is native and the other one is std::array? int native[3][4]; std::array<std::array<int, 3>, 4> arr; No! They are not. In fact, arr is more like an int[4][3]. Note the difference in the array subscripts. The native array is an array of 3 elements where every element is itself an array of 4 integers. 3 rows and 4 columns. If you want a std::array with the same layout, what you really need is: std::array<std::array<int, 4>, 3> arr; That's quite annoyin

### Covariance and Contravariance in C++ Standard Library

Covariance and Contravariance are concepts that come up often as you go deeper into generic programming. While designing a language that supports parametric polymorphism (e.g., templates in C++, generics in Java, C#), the language designer has a choice between Invariance, Covariance, and Contravariance when dealing with generic types. C++'s choice is "invariance". Let's look at an example. struct Vehicle {}; struct Car : Vehicle {}; std::vector<Vehicle *> vehicles; std::vector<Car *> cars; vehicles = cars; // Does not compile The above program does not compile because C++ templates are invariant. Of course, each time a C++ template is instantiated, the compiler creates a brand new type that uniquely represents that instantiation. Any other type to the same template creates another unique type that has nothing to do with the earlier one. Any two unrelated user-defined types in C++ can't be assigned to each-other by default. You have to provide a

### Unit Testing C++ Templates and Mock Injection Using Traits

Unit testing your template code comes up from time to time. (You test your templates, right?) Some templates are easy to test. No others. Sometimes it's not clear how to about injecting mock code into the template code that's under test. I've seen several reasons why code injection becomes challenging. Here I've outlined some examples below with roughly increasing code injection difficulty. Template accepts a type argument and an object of the same type by reference in constructor Template accepts a type argument. Makes a copy of the constructor argument or simply does not take one Template accepts a type argument and instantiates multiple interrelated templates without virtual functions Lets start with the easy ones. Template accepts a type argument and an object of the same type by reference in constructor This one appears straight-forward because the unit test simply instantiates the template under test with a mock type. Some assertion might be tested in