### linked list using std::pair (infinite regression)

Defining a node of a linked-list using std::pair sounds as simple as drinking a Starbucks's white chocolate mocha. But it really isn't. Give it a try! The constraint is to use std::pair's first or second as a pointer to the structure itself, like in any linked-list's node. As far as I know, it is impossible unless you resort to ugly casts from void pointers. The problem is actually quite well known and gives rise to something known as infinite regress, where the problem you want to solve reappears in the solution to the problem.

typedef std::pair<int, /* Pointer to this pair!! */ > Node;

The closest thing I could come up with is something like the one below.

struct Node : std::pair <int, Node *>
{};

Node n;
n.second = &n; // A cyclic linked-list.

Unknown said…
In C++0x:

template <typename T> using Node = std::pair<T, Node*>;
Logan Capaldo said…
How does this grab you?

template <class <typename A, typename B> T, typename First>
struct Mu2 {
T<First, Mu2<T, First>* > mu;
};

Mu2<std::pair, int> m;
m.mu.second = &m;

It's not exactly what you asked for, but it is arguably closer than the solution with inheritance.
Sumant said…
It almost gave me a neck sprain, but it works! I've reorganized and simplified it a little.

template <template <typename, typename> class T, typename First>
struct Mu2
{
T<First, Mu2* > mu;
};
Cool stuff, can you check out my C++ Code Samples too?

### Unit Testing C++ Templates and Mock Injection Using Traits

Unit testing your template code comes up from time to time. (You test your templates, right?) Some templates are easy to test. No others. Sometimes it's not clear how to about injecting mock code into the template code that's under test. I've seen several reasons why code injection becomes challenging. Here I've outlined some examples below with roughly increasing code injection difficulty. Template accepts a type argument and an object of the same type by reference in constructor Template accepts a type argument. Makes a copy of the constructor argument or simply does not take one Template accepts a type argument and instantiates multiple interrelated templates without virtual functions Lets start with the easy ones. Template accepts a type argument and an object of the same type by reference in constructor This one appears straight-forward because the unit test simply instantiates the template under test with a mock type. Some assertion might be tested in

### Covariance and Contravariance in C++ Standard Library

Covariance and Contravariance are concepts that come up often as you go deeper into generic programming. While designing a language that supports parametric polymorphism (e.g., templates in C++, generics in Java, C#), the language designer has a choice between Invariance, Covariance, and Contravariance when dealing with generic types. C++'s choice is "invariance". Let's look at an example. struct Vehicle {}; struct Car : Vehicle {}; std::vector<Vehicle *> vehicles; std::vector<Car *> cars; vehicles = cars; // Does not compile The above program does not compile because C++ templates are invariant. Of course, each time a C++ template is instantiated, the compiler creates a brand new type that uniquely represents that instantiation. Any other type to the same template creates another unique type that has nothing to do with the earlier one. Any two unrelated user-defined types in C++ can't be assigned to each-other by default. You have to provide a

### Multi-dimensional arrays in C++11

What new can be said about multi-dimensional arrays in C++? As it turns out, quite a bit! With the advent of C++11, we get new standard library class std::array. We also get new language features, such as template aliases and variadic templates. So I'll talk about interesting ways in which they come together. It all started with a simple question of how to define a multi-dimensional std::array. It is a great example of deceptively simple things. Are the following the two arrays identical except that one is native and the other one is std::array? int native[3][4]; std::array<std::array<int, 3>, 4> arr; No! They are not. In fact, arr is more like an int[4][3]. Note the difference in the array subscripts. The native array is an array of 3 elements where every element is itself an array of 4 integers. 3 rows and 4 columns. If you want a std::array with the same layout, what you really need is: std::array<std::array<int, 4>, 3> arr; That's quite annoying for